- Computer Security Risk.
- Any event, action, or situation that could lead to loss or destruction
of computer systems or data.
- Computer Crime.
- Use of a computer in a manner that violates the law.
- Use of the Internet to carry out illegal activities.
- Regarding computer systems, those techniques used to control access.
- Packet Sniffer.
- A program that examines all traffic on a section of network to
find passwords, credit card numbers and other information of value.
- Social Engineering.
- A form of deception designed to cause people to divulge sensitive
- Superuser Status.
- A classification, in multiuser operating systems, enabling administrative
access to virtually all files on a network.
- A security loophole analysis program designed for use by system
administrators (and abused by electronic intruders) to detect insecure
- Computer virus.
- A program designed to attach itself to a file, reproduce, and spread
from one file to another, destroying data, displaying an irritating
message, or otherwise disrupting computer operations.
- File Infector.
- Computer viruses that attach to program files and spread when the
program is executed.
- Boot Sector Virus.
- A computer virus that infects the sectors on a disk that contain
the data a computer uses during the boot process. This type of virus
does not require a program to spread, and may cause the destruction
of all data on a drive.
- Macro Virus.
- A computer virus that infects the automatic command execution capabilities
(macros) of productivity software. Macro viruses are typically attached
to documents and spreadsheets.
- Executable File.
- A file containing instructions capable of running on a computer,
usually with an .exe extension if intended for use on a PC.
- Time Bomb (Logic Bomb).
- A computer program (virus) designed to stay in a computer system
undetected until it is triggered at a certain date or time, or by
a certain event.
- A program designed to enter a computer system, usually a network,
and replicate itself. Worms can take control of resources to attack
- Trojan Horse.
- A computer program that appears to perform a useful function while
actually doing something malicious, such as inserting a virus, stealing
a password, or destroying data.
- The term "hacker' once meant a computer hobbyist or a computer
novice. In most contexts today, it means a person who has gained unauthorized
access to a computer system.
- People who break into a computer system with intent to damage files
or steal data, or who are driven to hack highly secure systems.
- Trap Door.
- A means to bypass normal security precautions and enter a computer
system. A trap door is often created during computer installation
and testing, or for personal exploitation.
- Power Spike.
- A sudden increase of power that lasts less than a millionth of
- Power Surge.
- A sudden increase of power that can last several seconds. Power
surges can destroy electronic components.
- Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS).
- A battery-powered device detects power outages and voltage drops,
and automatically replaces the supply source without interruption.
- Callback System.
- A system to control access to a computer by verifying information
and calling the person requesting access at a specified phone number.
- Handheld electronic devices, used to authenticate users, that generate
logon codes, and that may provide digital certificates.
- Credit card-sized devices with their own internal memory, often
used to control access to computer networks.
- Biometric Authentication.
- Biological measurements, such as fingerprinting, retinal scans,
and voice or facial recognition, used to verify a person's identity.
- A program to prevent or limit external access to a computer from
- Antivirus Software.
- Computer programs used to scan computer memory and disks to identify,
isolate, and eliminate viruses.
- Backup Software.
- Programming used to periodically make a backup copy of specified
hard disk data, to enable restoring lost material.