Companion website online: http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/sechin.html

"Archaeogeodesy can be defined as that area of study encompassing prehistoric and ancient place determination, navigation (on land or water), point positioning, measure and representation of the earth, geodynamic phenomena, and the applied astronomy. Archaeogeodesy, by combining fundamental astronomy, geodetic knowledge, applied mathematics, accurate positional data and archaeology, presents a methodology for investigating the architecture, placements, spatial properties, relationships and arrangements of prehistoric sites and monuments. As a new area of inquiry, archaeogeodesy presents unique avenues of assessing ancient understandings of geography, of place, and of the earth and the cosmos as evidenced by archaeological remains."

From* Archaeogeodesy, a Key to Prehistory*. 1992.

Articles by the author:

*Ancient Monument Latitudes Evidence Accurate Astronomy
Newark Archaeogeodesy, Assessing Evidence of Geospatial Intelligence in the Americas*

Five plazas extend 1.4 km from the central mound, three with central sunken courts, one of which is about 80 m in diameter (Fung Pineda 1988:87). The main mound is 44 m high by 300 m by 250 m., making it the largest single construction in the New World during the second millennium B.C. (Burger 1992:80). The mound was faced with granite blocks, some weighing over 2 tons. Sechín Alto's great size may represent a 1000 year span of building (Burger 1992:82).

Evidence of Socio-Political Organization and the Variation in its Interpretation.

-9.465041

-78.242423

149

Largest truncated pyramid in the Americas.

Latitude south 9.46232 degrees, tangent equals one-sixth.

Architecture and Chronology at the Site of Sechín Alto, Casma Valley, Peru

Thomas Pozorski and Shelia Pozorski, 2005 Journal of Field Archaeology 30:2(143-161)

Abstract

The Initial Period, between 2150 and 1000 cal B.C., was a critical time in the development of civilization within the Andean area of South America. About 2100 cal B.C., within several river valleys along the north-central coast of Peru, sudden changes occurred in subsistence, settlement pattern, and level of cultural complexity. These changes were especially notable within the Casma Valley where labor was mobilized to build large flat-topped pyramids and plaza systems that occupied the centers of large cities. The site of Sechín Alto, with an estimated population of 18,000, is the largest Initial Period site in the Casma Valley on the north-central coast of Peru. Our research has shown that successive changes in the construction and use of the main Sechín Alto mound can be used to document the rise and fall of a state-level Initial Period polity. We illustrate this development by describing the chronological sequence for the main mound of Sechín Alto, the site's relationship with other sites within the Casma Valley area, and the reuse and abandonment of the site during the Early Horizon (1000-200 cal B.C.). These features of what may be the earliest Andean state provide critical comparative data for scholars of societal development worldwide.

Panoramio

]]>

-9.460246

-78.231612

147

location approximate for east end of complex. ]]>

-9.461576

-78.234621

141

visible crop mark indicates location. ]]>

-9.462563

-78.236917

136 ]]>

-9.456426

-78.251974

144

EARLY ANDEAN CITIES by Shelia Pozorski and Thomas Pozorski

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN June 1994 270:6(66-72)

"Some 3,800 years ago Pampa de las Llamas-Moxeke and Taukachi-Konkan were carefully laid-out urban centers...."

"Our excavations in 1992 and 1993 concentrated on the best-preserved Sechin Alto site, Taukachi-Konkan. .... The site's center is open, formed by several large rectangular plazas lined by intermediate-size mounds. Two large mounds open toward sunken circular plazas similar to the one adjacent to Huaca A. Radiocarbon dates of six samples range from about 2000 to 1300 B.C." ]]>

-9.455535

-78.250042

132 ]]>

-9.450817

-78.245107

153 ]]>

-9.445499

-78.223682

169]]>

-9.464559

-78.264696

105

The huaca at Sechin Bajo is due west of the Sechin Alto complex of mounds and plazas.

The New World’s First Monumental Civilization Popular Archaeology Nov 28, 2015

"Archaeologists have uncovered monumental finds in recent years that testify to early urbanized civilization dating back at least 5500 years ago in Peru.

"... a circular, sunken plaza built of stones and adobe. Radiocarbon dating of the materials unearthed at the feature revealed that it had been built between 3500 and 3000 BCE, or as much as 5500 years ago, making it

Panoramio

]]>

-9.464231

-78.263633

101]]>

-9.464965

-78.265466

108

"... se puede concluir que, durante el Periodo Arcaico Tardío, el interior del valle de Casma ya presentaba una arquitectura ceremonial incluso mucho más temprana que la registrada para los sitios del litoral ... los tres fechados de la construcción más antigua de Sechín Bajo, se puede postular que el Primer Edificio corresponde a fines del cuarto milenio y principios del tercer milenio a.C." Investigaciones arqueológicas en el sitio de Sechín Bajo, Casma ]]>

-9.465266

-78.265266

106]]>

-9.480745

-78.258912

116

The Cerro Sechín complex covered 5 ha. The Initial period reconstruction of the pyramid measures about 53 m on each side. It was faced with a 4.15 m high granite retaining wall (Samaniego et al. 1985:166) displaying 400 sculptures, more stone carving than at any other Initial period site. The reconstruction and stone facing was completed and repaired before 3500 ± 55 B.P. and in use until 3240 ± 20 B.P. according to available radiocarbon measurements, then reoccupied several centuries later (Fuchs 1997:158-159).

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio

]]>

-9.462162

-78.230703

148]]>

-9.370119

-78.174103

432

Huerequeque: An inland outpost of the Initial Period Sechín Alto Polity in the Casma Valley of Peru

Journal of Field Archaeology 41(4):428-447 · July 2016

Thanks go to Edward B. Kurjack for correcting this placemark, pointing me to the correct ruin, "I noticed that the place you labeled Huerequeque did not match the Pozorski description of the site. After a bit of searching I noticed the ruins they mention ..." ]]>

-9.370503

-78.173334

404 ]]>

-9.392296

-78.178033

343

Historia en Fotos - Perú ]]>

-9.405240

-78.191024

289]]>

(Pozorski and Pozorski 1995)

Recent Excavations at Pampa de las Llamas-Moxeke, a Complex Initial Period Site in Peru

Shelia Pozorski & Thomas Pozorski 2013 Journal of Field Archaeology 13:4(381-401)

Abstract

The Andean area of South America has long been recognized as a center of emerging civilization. Recent fieldwork at the site of Pampa de las Llamas-Moxeke in the coastal Casma Valley of Peru has revealed important details of an early complex society which dates to about 1400 B.C. Extensive archaeological excavations have yielded data on a variety of activities vital to the urban center. Public structures such as truly monumental mounds as well as subsidiary administrative buildings have been explored along with both elite and lower status domestic units. Available information on subsistence and burial practices is also discussed, and the site is compared to other contemporary coastal settlements.

Excerpt

A series of parallel rows of intermediate-sized mounds and enclosures flank Moxeke and Huaca A on either side of the central site axis ... One segment of intermediate structures along the western side of the site ... during mapping of the longer rows ... the extreme precision of previously-recognized orderly site layout became apparent. The fronts of these structures vary only 2 to 6 cm from a straight line across a distance of over 700 m. ]]>

-9.511890

-78.232170

124

Moxeke-Pampa de las Llamas complex covers about 220 ha with two major platform mounds and intervening terraced plazas on the site's 1.1 km long centerline (Pozorski and Pozorski 1987b:31). The Moxeke mound measures 170 m by 160 m by 30 m., is tiered with rounded corners, has several terraces and a central atrium (Pozorski and Pozorski 1987b:33). The final rebuilding used massive stone blocks, including carefully shaped and polished square ashlars. The front wall has enormous niches with high relief sculpture. Huaca A, at the northeast end of the plazas, measures about 135 m by 120 m by 12 m and is slightly rhomboid in shape. This tiered platform is symmetrically covered by chambers. Huge, low-relief clay friezes of felines decorate the building entrance. The mound is fronted on the centerline by a sunken plaza and a stone platform with a circular stone court (Pozorski and Pozorski 1987b:33).

Bibliography: http://jqjacobs.net/andes/coast.html

See also: Recent Excavations at Pampa de las Llamas-Moxeke, a Complex Initial Period Site in Peru. By Shelia Pozorski y Thomas Pozorski,

-9.502853

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154

The Inca road crosses Huaca A's foreground.

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio

Panoramio ]]>

-9.501485

-78.221181

159 ]]>

-9.506865

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132 ]]>

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145 ]]>

-9.556422

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296

Panoramio

Panoramio ]]>

-9.556808

-78.236006

300 ]]>

-9.557285

-78.236037

299 ]]>

-9.549244

-78.229996

158

latitude = one-sixth radian ]]>

-9.561232

-78.227455

203

Panoramio

This construct was interpreted as an astronomical observatory dating from at least 2400 years ago.

The Thirteen Towers outline the solar and lunar motions on the horizon when viewed from points to the east or west.

Chankillo Thirteen Towers Solar Observatory.

http://www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/07-03-01-03.all.html

Chankillo, Peru, Ancient Solar Observatory?

http://www.jqjacobs.net/peru/chankillo.html ]]>

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192 ]]>

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-78.227585

206 ]]>

-9.537521

-77.994714

675

Panoramio

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-9.537537

-77.994563

674

Pallka, un sitio del Periodo Formativo en la parte mediaalta del valle de Casma: alcances preliminares sobrelas etapas constructivas del Área Ceremonial, Jack Chávez Echevarría, Andes 8 (2011): 97-112 ]]>

-9.537562

-77.994376

674

Investigaciones arqueológicas en Pallka. Mónica Suárez Ubillus, ]]>

-9.537936

-77.995055

674 ]]>

-9.498850

-78.277276

74 ]]>

-9.702264

-78.297057

33

Las Haldas, on the Pacific shoreline, only 20 km south of the Casma River, also has late Initial period U-shaped construction similar to Sechín Alto, but smaller in scale (Burger 1992). Its central area is dominated by a large mound and plaza area flanked by smaller, substantial mounds (Pozorski and Pozorski 1987b:16). ]]>

-9.703110

-78.297519

39

Panoramio

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-9.701631

-78.296716

33 ]]>

-9.700842

-78.296297

33 ]]>

-9.596658

-78.365480

9 ]]>

Reading the Results Placemarks

The image above illustrates several points and the shorthand used in the balloons. The illustrated placemark is named secal-cargp, the label visible in Google Earth's Places menu. These two site name codes represent Sechin Alto and Caral Greater Pyramid. The placemark includes a line tessellated between sites to visually represent the site-to-site relatioonship. Of course, this does not represent an actual line on the ground nor is their any intention to imply any correlated constructs. The purpose of the line is representational and utilitarian, allowing display of all site relationships and clicking on the lines to read the recorded data. Enter the site codes in the archaeogeodesy.xls applet (range F5-F7, illustrated below) and the applet uses the latitude and longitude coordinates they represent to calculate arc distances, bearings, and other results. In the code worksheet, partially formed KML can be copied to create the corresponding file by completing the coding and saving the text file as a .kml.

In the image above, the placemark balloon first displays the relationship Sechin Alto - Caral Greater Pyramid then two distinct results. The second line presenting the ratio "n-s : e-w @ cargp = 1.0 : 0.500004" indicates the north-south distance between the monuments is twice the east-west distance at Caral. In the placemarks file I've included parentheses indicating, given the coordinate positions, the inaccuracy in meters of the expressed result. The second result, lhalp-hidol, is a related finding repeating the 2:1 ratio, except this ratio is actual degrees east-west (n-s : e- w° instead of n-s : e-w @ one of the latitudes) from Las Haldas to Huaca de los Idolos. The shorthand e-w° indicates it is actual degrees. Using e-w @ indicates ground measure, which varies with latitude for the same number of degrees of longitude.

Site codes such as lhalp-lidol can be resolved using the archaeogeodesy.xls applet by entering them in the arcs worksheet, range F5-F7, illustrated below. The sites worksheet listing all the sites and corresponding variables can be sort ordered alphabetically using the range name "sitelist." The applet and the archaeogeodesy.kml file contain about 4,500 monument coordinates globally. In Google Earth, clicking the five letter site coded placemarks on the satellite imagery reveals the names, coordinates, and any other information and photo embeds in a balloon. Download this large KML file to display all sites. The sechim.kml file only presents the sites in the Casma-Sechin area.

The module codes seen in displayed results are defined in the epoch worksheet of the applet. The modules and fundamental astronomy are discussed in *Eclipses, Cosmic Clockwork of the Ancients*. The first eight are astronomical motion units equating time and space. The astronomical values adjust according to the selected epoch setting, arcs worksheet, cell F17. In this KML file the setting is epoch chavin unless otherwise stated, -1200 as displayed in cell E17. My temporal calculator, Epoch Calc, is embedded in the epoch worksheet.

The following image displays an arc distances ratio from Marcahuamachuco to the immense Sechin Alto and Pachacamac huacas. The ratio reflects one of the fundamental astronomical constants, albeit the decimal is shifted. Lunar orbit per rotation is also one of the modules; r27 equals 0.036501 circumference. For the geodetic placements to precisely represent 1.0 : 10 lr (lunar orbit per rotation), the lesser arc would need to be 3 meters longer (-3m). The method of determining the monument centerpoint coordinates is not that precise. Note how the other major ruin at Marcahuamachuco reflects a related astronomy constant, lunar orbits per day. The lunar orbits per day numerical value is seen redundantly in other Casma-Sechin results.

Distant inter-site scale is far greater than intra-valley relationships, hence several meters difference has far less impact on the numerical precision of the ratios. Greater scale of monuument spacing enables higher precision of numerical expression and accuracy of representation. Perhaps the decimal shift seen in this and other examples functions to be able to represent the astronomy constants with greater accuracy. Of course, over even greater, global distances variable tectonic motion is a factor, moreso the more ancient the monuments. While not included in this file, I have calculated the temporal change in monument coordinates and distant spatial relationships using individual site tectonic motion modeling.

Finally, the results published herein should be considered in the context of previous results available online and linked in placemarks herein. Research results for other monument complexes remain unpublished. More findings are available to professionals employing the applet and data to examine site relationships for themselves.

]]>Latitude Geometry and Astronomy

The importance of the Sechin complex is not just evident by the massiveness of Sechin Alto, the age of Sechin Bajo, or the incredible number of carved megaliths at the Cerro Sechin, but also by the latitude trigonometry. Before ancient Egyptians erected pyramids and Europeans erected the great stone circles, an ancient Andean culture placed a monument at the latitude forming a 1 : 6 sided triangle in relation to the center of the earth. Additionally, important major monuments in the Andes and on the other continents were erected in relation to the Sechin complex.

In the 1980s I noted the geodetic geometry of Cahokia. Cahokia's obvious east-west axis, Woodhenge, and Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric monument north of Mexico and the largest-in-volume prehistoric earthen construction in the Americas, are situated in relation to the geodetic latitude. Specifically, the latitude tangent equals precisely 0.80, four-fifths. In other words the site's geodetic axis, the line to the center of the earth's mass, is the hypotenuse of a 4:5 geocentric triangle.

Thereafter I determined and converted the latitudes of other major monuments to trigonometric functions and other geodetic and astronomical modules. One of the oldest known stone circles is Nabta Playa in Egypt. The latitude placement of Nabta Playa, near one-fourth the distance from equator to pole, could imply intentional latitude placement originates by around 7,500 years ago. Given such early context, less suprisingly some of the largest monuments in the world and earliest major monuments in both hemispheres evidence construction at specific significant latitudes, latitudes which imply accurate astronomy, systematic point positioning, and possibly observational astronomy as a function of their geodetic positions.

The geometry of the angle between the local geodetic and celestial reference frames presents a functional rationale to place astronomical observatories at locations with low-integer geodetic triangles. Monument placement at latitudes where small rational numbers describe the local geometric relationship to celestial motions has astronomical utility. Such placement of observations provides considerable simplification of mathematical operations. With simple integer ratios expressing trigonometric functions, complex math operations are avoided while also eliminating the inaccuracy of decimal rounding.

Given latitude placements are intentional, monument positioning evidences the earliest known precise astronomical and geodetic measurements. Thus, great ancient monuments evidence a capability of accurately determining latitude spanning the range of their construction. The earliest evidence of astronomical observatories using exact sciences is implied by monument latitude positioning.

Astronomy is essential to place determination relative to the whole earth. Latitude is far easier to determine than is longitude. Geodetic latitude is determined using earth's poles and the celestial poles, extensions of the earth's axis of rotation to two fixed, non-moving points in space. To determine geodetic latitude the local level and plumb reference frame is compared with the angular position of an astronomical pole. The poles inter-reference astronomical and terrestrial coordinates. At Cahokia, the North Pole angle's tangent is five-fourths.

While trigonometric function was a new consideration which I first brought to ancient monument placements, another latitude property, fractional geodivisions of circumference had received previous notice. Livvio Stecchini noted the latitude at Karnak equals one-seventh the meridian arc and wrote that ancient geographers divided the meridian from equator to pole into seven zones. The latitude baseline equaling one-fourteenth of earth's circumference intersects Karnak, passing between the Mut and Amun Halls. By comparison, the list of Nile monuments closest to similar geometric subdivisions presents large margins of error. The Giza pyramids are several kilometers from one-twelfth of circumference (30.0°), a significant error. Without precision, intentionality is not a valid consideration.

Precise latitude and the accuracy of placement of monuments is only recently relatively easy to determine. In 1984, the World Geodetic System (WGS) established accurate global place determination and point positioning in a universal geodetic reference frame. Current cartography research and study also benefits from recently developed tools and methods. The Google Earth virtual globe has placed high resolution aerial and satellite imagery at anyone's fingertips, along with the capability to create customized placemark files and the graphics herein. And, of course, accurate GPS devices employing the global positioning system pinpoint user positions. With the aid of modern technology we have caught up to ancient geodetic science sufficiently to realize the geometry and placements of ancient monuments is complex rather than unordered.

]]>arc 0.021975° = 0.001668 c27 (+2m)

mean latitude -9.464800° tangent = 0.166711 ]]>

arc 0.01307° = 0.000993 r27 (-10m) ]]>

arc 0.057275° = 0.0009996 r (-2m) ]]>

arc 0.056935° = 0.0001667 e (-.3m) ]]>

arc 0.044677° = 0.001666 s22 (-3m)

huamo-chana-chanb mean arc 0.045877° = 0.001667 s27 (-0.4m)

latitude 1/6 sine (Chavin) less latitude 1/6 radian = 0.044772°

huamo-chanb arc 0.045077° = 0.0001252 cir (+9m) ]]>

arc 0.045077° = 0.0001252 cir (+9m)

huamo-chana arc 0.044677° = 0.001666 s22 (-3m) ]]>

arc 0.057222° = 0.0009987 r (-8m)

huamo-sebpe 0.057275° = 0.0009996 r (-2m)

huamo-huacp-chanb arcs ratio @ huamo = 1.0 : 0.333302 (-0.2m) ]]>

cttct-chana arc 0.009543° tan = 0.0001666 (-1m)

cttct-chanb arc 0.009522° tan = 0.0001662 (-3m)

Chankillo Huaca latitude -9.549297° = 0.166666 r (-6m)

Chankillo Thirteen Towers latitude -9.561232° = 0.166875 r

chana-huamo arc 0.044677° = 0.001666 s22 (-3m)

chana-cttct n-s 0.004422° = 0.000165 s22 (-5m)

chanb-cttct-huacp arcs ratio @ chanb = 1.0 : 0.166410 (-2m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ huacp = 1.0 : 0.750056 (+0.4m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ huamo = 1.0 : 0.333302 (-0.2m)

mean arc @ huacp 0.036123° = 0.00010034 cir = cir/ 9965.87 ]]>

e-w ratio @ lhasc = 1.0 : 0.618309 (+2.3m)

phi = 0.618033989... ]]>

arc : e-w @ chanh = 1.0 : 0.399783 (-4m) ]]>

arc : n-s = 1.200796 : 1.0 (-2.3m)

]]>

n-s ratio @ pllla = 1.0 : 1.200439

pllla-hlcan arc : n-s = 1.0 : 1.20080 ]]>

arcs ratio @ chanb = 1.0 : 0.365161 (-2m)

do = 365.256576 days per orbit ]]>

arc : e-w @ secal = 1.0 : 0.222223 (precise)

arc : e-w @ secal = 9.0 : 2.000010 (-.03m)

arc : e-w @ lhasc = 9.0 : 1.998598 (+4m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ pallh = 1.0 : 0.666452 (-8m)

arcs ratio @ lhalp = 1.0 : 0.624898 (-4m)

arcs ratio @ pllla = 1.0 : 0.937648 (+4m)

arcs ratio = 48 : 32 : 30

arcs = 0.0009998 e, 0.0006663 e, 0.0006248 e (-8m, -14m, -9m) ]]>

n-s : e-w @ cargp = 1.0 : 0.500004 (0.6m)

lhalp-hidol n-s : e-w° = 1.0 : 0.499994 (-7m)

]]>

n-s : e-w° = 1.0 : 0.499994 (-7m)

n-s : e-w° = 1.112213° : 0.556100°

huass-hidol n-s : e-w° = 1.0 : 12.366703 (+2m)

moons per year = 12.3682763 ]]>

arc : e-w @ secal = 1.414237 : 1.0 (-1m)

square root of two = 1.414214

arc 0.600620° = 0.00166839 cir (+69m)

n-s : e-w° = 1.0 : 1.001285 (-60m)

]]>

arcs ratio @ pumak = 1.0 : 0.799905 (-8m)

tumsh-pumak n-s : e-w @ pumak = 1.0 : 1.700082

secal-tumsh arc : e-w @ secal = 1.414237 : 1.0 (-1m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ secal = 1.0 : 0.500106 (+36m)

hdsol-hvent arc : e-w @ hvent = 1.0 : 0.50055

secal-hdsol-hvent bearings @ hdsol = 179.4759°

seale-hdsol-hvent bearings @ hdsol = 179.9134° ]]>

arcs ratio @ lahal = 1.0 : 0.799978 (-8m)

hvent-lhald-garah bearings @ lhald = -179.9716° ]]>

arcs ratio @ marcc = 1.0 : 0.3650043 (-3m)

secal-monj2-pachs arcs = 1.0 : 0.366007 (-2m)

lr = 0.036501051 lunar orbits per rotation

ld = 0.036600983 lunar orbits per day

]]>

huass-secal-lahal arcs ratio @ huass = 1.0 : 0.799801 (-20m)

huass-secal-lhasc arcs ratio @ huass = 1.0 : 0.800396 (+39m) ]]>

huass-chanb-pallh arcs ratio @ chanb = 1.0 : 0.314224 (+5m)

huass-chanb-hpall e-w ratio @ hpall = 1.0 : 0.618244 (-5m)

pi = 3.14159265..., phi = 0.618033989... ]]>

arcs ratio @ garap = 1.0 : 2.333314 (+1m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ garah = 1.0 : 0.997244 (-8m)

dr = 0.9972697 days per rotation ]]>

e-w ratio @ carcp = 1.0 : 0.314047 (-9m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ chhha = 1.0 : 0.444357 (-23m) ]]>

e-w 0.131837° = 0.010006 c27 (+8m)

catov-lahal e-w 0.131496° = 0.010007 r27 (+10m) ]]>

arc 6.695703° = 0.01859918 cir (+11m)

arc 6.695703° = 0.000100005 t (+11m)

yt = 18.5989022 years per lunar orbit turn

seasc-mptor arc 6.695205° = 0.01859779 cir (-16m)

ot = 18.5981902 orbits per lunar orbit turn

secal-mapcr arc 6.700409° = 0.0186122 cir (+4m)

ys = 18.6121535 years per lunar standstill period ]]>

arc 11.999674° = 0.0333324 cir (-36m)

arc 11.999674° = cir / 30.000814 ]]>

arc 111.469560° cosine = -0.366007 (-20m)

sebpe-sphip arc 111.470421° cosine = -0.366021 (+75m)

ld = 0.03660098 lunar orbits per day ]]>

arc 111.469124° cosine = -0.366000 (-69m)

ld = 0.03660098 lunar orbits per day

khugp-chana arc 111.485331° cosine = -0.366263 (+44m) ]]>

arc 111.485331° cosine = -0.366263 (+44m)

ro = 366.256576 rotations per orbit

khugp-sechh arc 111.469124° cosine = -0.366000 (-69m) ]]>

arc 49.3702° = 1.83338 s27 (+144m)

n-s = 3.66242 r27 (-11m)

n-s = 3.65242 c27 (-11m)

dy = 365.242594 days per year

Sechin Alto latitude = atan 1/6

Monks Mound latitude = atan 4/5

mm34c-sealp arc 49.368892° = 1.833334 s27 (+3m)

mm34c-huass arc 49.170923° = 1.833326 s22 (-20m)

mm34c-seccp e-w 11.827431° = 12.000131 so (+14m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ cah55 = 1.0 : 0.365016 (+30m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ sebaj = 1.0 : 0.365005 (-57m)

sebaj-north pole-newgc ratio = 1.0 : 0.365007 (-40m)

sebsc-newgc-itcas arcs @ sebsc = 1.0 : 0.365008 (-20m)

secal-itcas-cah55 arcs @ cah55 = 1.0 : 0.365016 (+30m)

lr = 0.036501051 lunar orbits per rotation ]]>

arc 49.41143883° = 3.750008 c27 (+12m) ]]>

arc 36.098589° = 36.625697 so (+3m)

ro = 366.256576 rotations per orbit

tulac latitude tangent = 0.365240 (-16m)

ncec-tulaa-pachs n-s @ tulaa = 1.0 : 1.618224 (+53m) ]]>

e-w 13.176554° = 1.000015 c27 (+22m)

e-w 13.176554° = 0.03660154 cir

secal-popma-tuchz arcs @ secal = 1.0 : 3.659824 (+100m)

secba-popma-tuchz arcs @ secba = 1.0 : 3.652604 (-14m) ]]>

n-s ratio @ sechh = 1.0 : 0.666669 (+20m)

sebaj-north pole-newgc ratio = 1.0 : 0.365007 (-40m)

secal-popma-tuchz arcs @ secal = 1.0 : 3.659824 (+100m)

secal-popmb-tuchz arcs @ secal = 1.0 : 3.660263 (-60m)

seccp-popma e-w = 0.03660154 cir (+22m) ]]>

n-s ratio @ popma = 1.0 : 0.366020 (+48m)

ld = 0.03660098 lunar orbits per day

seccp-popma e-w 13.176459° = 0.03660154 cir = 1.000015 c27 (+22m)

chhha-popoe-tgpp1 n-s ratio @ popoe = 1.0 : 0.365004 (-29m) ]]>

e-w ratio @ lvenp = 1.0 : 0.166690 (+40m)

sebsc-lvenp-popma e-w @ lvenp = 1.0 : 0.166678 (+21m)

sechh-lvenp-popma e-w @ lvenp = 1.0 : 0.166629 (-67m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ sebaj = 1.0 : 3.652569 (-1m)

do = 365.256576 days per orbit

sebaj-popma-tuchz arcs ratio @ sebaj = 1.0 : 3.652656 (-33m)

secal-popma-tuchz arcs ratio @ sebaj = 1.0 : 3.659824 (+100m)

chhsc-popoe arc : e-w @ chhsc = 1.0 : 3.141728 (-68m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ tikna = 1.0 : 3.660102 (-3m)

ld = 0.03660098 lunar orbits per day

khugp-sechh arc 111.469124° cosine = -0.366000 (-69m)

khugp-chana arc 111.485331° cosine = -0.366263 (+44m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ mm34c = 1.0 : 1.867298 (+375m)

epoch chavin yer = 18.674265 year-eclipse nodal interval, difference, rotations

epoch chaco yer = 18.673463 year-eclipse nodal interval, difference, rotations

given epoch chaco, 1050 A.D.:

arcs ratio @ mm34c = 1.0 : 1.867298 (+140m)

arcs ratio @ woodh = 1.0 : 1.867379 (-95m)

arcs ratio @ cah41 = 1.0 : 1.867346 (+1m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ tikgp = 1.0 : 0.833330 (-14m)

secal-mapcr arc 6.70041° = 0.01861225 cir (-6m)

os = 18.612397 orbits per lunar standstill period

secal-mapcr arc : e-w @ mapcr = 1.0 : 0.833303 (-22m)

secal-mappo arc : e-w @ mappo = 1.0 : 0.833338 (-3m)

sealp-tikgp-mapit e-w ratio @ sealp = 1.0 : 0.499998 (-2m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ kalap = 1.0 : 0.249999 (-5m) ]]>

n-s ratio @ sebaj = 1.0 : 0.777779 (+10m)

nocga-thors arc 53.64109185° = 1.999996 s22 (-13m) ]]>

arc 90.000674 ° = 0.25000187 cir (+75m) ]]>

e-w ratio @ nocp = 1.0 : 314.18888 (-0.14m)

nocp-seccp-huacp e-w @ huacp = 1.0 : 314.21737 (-0.27m) ]]>

great circle angle @ Huascaran = 179.9864° (21m N. = 180.0°) ]]>

e-w ratio @ khafr = 1.0 : 0.314158 (-11m)

khugp-rbrod-tausp e-w = 1.0 : 0.314158 (-13m)

khugp-sechh arc 111.469124° cosine = -0.366000 (-69m)

ld = 0.036601 lunar orbits per day

khugp-chana arc 111.485331° cosine = -0.366263 (+44m)

ro = 366.2566 rotations per orbit

rbrod-huass-aconc arcs ratio @ huass = 1.0 : 0.366247

saxic-huass-aconc arcs ratio @ saxic = 1.0 : 0.366244 (2.5m)

secal-huass-khugp great circle @ Huascaran = 179.982° (28m) ]]>

n-s ratio @ huamo = 1.0 : 1.859894 (-8m)

huamo-ssten-mohst = 1.0 : 1.859871 (+40m)

yt = 18.5989022 years per lunar orbit turn

huamo-rbrod-mohnt = 1.859800 (+40m)

ot = 18.5981902 orbits per lunar orbit turn

rbrod-avecm-mohlt n-s ratio @ avecm = 1.0 : 0.3141604 (+8m)

pachs-mohes arc 143.99315° = 0.399981 cir

ncec-mohes arc 107.27961° = 3.99990 s22

ncec-pachs arc 52.55545° = 3.99954 r27 ]]>

n-s ratio @ secal = 1.0 : 19.611789 (+9m)

es = 19.612154 eclipse nodal intervals per standstill period

sebaj-denal-mapcr n-s @ sebaj = 1.0 : 19.598527 (-7m)

et = 19.5981902 eclipse nodal intervals per lunar orbit turn

denal-secal e-w 72.764277° = 2.500009 s29 (+28m) ]]>

arcs ratio @ secal = 1.0 : 0.346621 (+12m)

epoch chaco de = 346.619825 days per eclipse nodal interval ]]>

arcs ratio @ sealp = 1.0 : 1.666662 (+16m)

seasc-patwk-avocm arcs ratio @ seasc = 1.0 : 1.666649 (+63m) ]]>

-9.121196

-77.604428

6774.7

South Summit, GPS coordinates, climbed August 7th, 2007

Data source]]>

-9.456941

-78.320779

116]]>

-9.482873

-78.261464

242]]>