2009.01.09  In 1991,
I first noted the arc distance between Ohio's ancient Newark and Marietta earthworks equaled
circumference (cir) of the earth divided by days per year. In part,
excitement about this finding prompted improvement of my crude method,
simply measuring maps. I was soon employing spherical trigonometry and
traveling to University libraries, seeking out site plans and
topographic maps to derive accurate monument coordinates. I confirmed the arc
distance equaled cir/365.25, and I later noted the
degrees longitude difference matched.
I took a great leap forward
in methods in 2005, traveling to Ohio
for GPS readings on the mounds, then confirming the GPS positions in
Google Earth. Coordinates
and site codes are appended below in Appendix A and the figures herein
display the site codes. Technology had caught up with my hypothesis, so
to speak, and using GPS data I repeated and expanded on a preliminary
2001 study, Possible Geodetic Properties and Relationships of Some
Monumental Earthworks in the Middle Ohio Valley. Several Newark Octagon to Marietta
relationships presented astronomical constants accurately. Not unlike
grinding and polishing a lens, with each step in methods improvement,
arc distances resolved more accurately in relation to astronomical
constants. An ancient geodetic codex is now unveiling with some
clarity, and this article discusses the research results. Some Newark study results are also
compiled in a Google Earth file.
Marietta Conus Mound and Ellipse
Initial Findings
Initially I observed, on a
National Geographic 1:267,000 map, the NewarkMarietta arc distance
equaling circumference divided by days per year. With GPS coordinates
and trigonometry, I also noted the arc distances from the Octagon to
the two truncated pyramids in Marietta Square (Figure 1), Quadranau
Mound (maqum) and Capitolium Mound (macam), match two lunar orbit
values (Table 1). Significantly, lunar astronomy correlates with the
capacity for navigation and longitude determination.
The Octagon centerpoint
datum (nocp) is the average of the GPS readings for the eight
embankment vertices. From the Octagon to Capitoleum Mound, arc distance
and degrees E  W (longitude difference) are equal. From the Octagon
centerpoint the arc distance cir/365.24 and the same longitude
difference converge within 250 feet of the center of Marietta Square,
one of the largest Hopewell squares (1510' per Romain). From the Octagon centerpoint the arc
distance cir/365.01 and the same longitude difference converge atop Marietta Capitoleum mound, the high point of Marietta
Works. In 365 lunar orbits, there are 10,000 rotations; the moon orbits 0.036501 circumferences per earth rotation.
Figure 1. Marietta Earthworks

Calendar keepers count days and years, or
rotations, or moons. Astronomers count all these and more. Three
fundamental astronomical motions, earth rotation and lunar and solar
orbits, present the following ratios in integers; there are 10,000
rotations in 365 lunar orbits
and in 366 there are 10,000 days. The two lunar orbit numbers, 365 and
366, are repeated in the Octagon to Marietta arcs, with
OctagonQuadranau arc equaling cir/366 and OctagonCapitoleum equaling
both cir/365 and EW cir/365 (Table 1).
There are 10,000 rotations in 365 lunar orbits,
and in 366 orbits there are 10,000 days.
Table 1. Newark
and Marietta Arcs

arc

arc

EW

Octagon  Capitoleum

0.9863° = cir/365.0

0.9864°

Octagon  Quadranau

0.9837° = cir/366.0

0.9832°

lunar constant
values

module

lunar orbits per rotation

R27
= 13.140381° = 0.036501 cir

lunar orbits per day

C27
= 13.176357°
= 0.036601 cir

Marietta Quadranau Mound deskpicture
Fundamental astronomy is discussed in Eclipses, Cosmic Clockwork of the Ancients. A primer on fundamental
astronomy in the Archaeogeodesy pages discusses formulas and precession. Appendix B below references
the astronomy code terms and abbreviations herein.
The Ancient Earthworks of Eastern North
America pages provide photo galleries, site descriptions, collected
data, survey maps, references cited, and placemark and data file links.
Google Earth users can view earthwork survey drawings using Eastern
Woodlands placemark overlays of Squier and Davis 1848 survey
maps.

